CAIRO – 27 January 2021: The era of the second transition or the period of the reign of the Hyksos (15-17th Dynasties, from 1650-1550 BC) was an era of historical tribulations for ancient Egypt.
Opinions differed about the original home of these occupiers, as well as the way in which they infirtlated Egypt until they reached power, especially in Lower Egypt. they took their own capital, Avaris, which scholars also disagreed about its current location.
So, where did the Hyksos come from?
Professor in the Department of History and Egyptian and Islamic Archeology at the Faculty of Arts, Alexandria University, Essam Mohamed el-Saeed,said in his book "The War of Liberation Against the Hyksos - A Bright Page of the Ancient Egyptian Army", that the Hyksos infirtlated from the Levant to Egypt in the 12-13th Dynasties.
Their great colony was in Avaris in the east of the delta, controlling the Egyptian mining and trade missions with the Levant, Cyprus and the Aegean Sea, and the Egyptian officials who supervised these activities were from the people of the Western Semitic languages.
The end of the rule of the Hyksos came at the hands of the heroes of liberation coming from the city of Thebes -the present-day Luxor. King Ahmose I expelled them from Egypt and liberated the country.
The book also discusses the war of liberation against the Hyksos, which is an important period in the history of ancient Egypt, which established a great empire in the ancient Near East, from the Euphrates in the north through Cyrenaica in the west to the depths of Africa in the south.
This Pharaonic era spanned nearly five centuries (1575-1087 BC), and it is evident that all this was a product of the liberation war against the Hyksos. The Hyksos only controlled the north from Egypt to Al-Qusiyyah in the south, while Upper Egypt remained ruled by patriotic Egyptians.
Egypt offered its martyrs, headed by King Seqenenre Tao, followed by his son King Kamose, who was succeeded by his brother, King Ahmose, who concluded the epic of heroism and cleansed the country from the rule of the dreaded Hyksos.
The Egyptians soon realized that their natural borders began outside their traditional borders, so the Egyptian Empire was established in the Modern Kingdom in order to protect the land and borders of Egypt.