CAIRO – 8 May 2022: The pyramids of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure were built in the 26th-25th centuries BC (about 2600 BC - 2400 BC), and they remain a witness to the brilliant planning and engineering in ancient Egypt.
The exact years the pyramids were built are somewhat unclear. It is a subject of debate among scholars; however, different sources and scholars have different estimates of the date of each pharaoh's rule according to Live Science.
The way these pyramids were built is also a source of speculation and debate. Many researchers believe that a sloping geometric system of some form was used to move the blocks into place during construction, and when the pyramids were completed, they were covered in whole or in part by white limestone, most of which is lost today.
Research indicates that when the blocks were moved across the desert a small amount of water was placed on the sand which made it easier to move them, and in 2018, researchers have found a strange 4,500-year-old tool in the Eastern Desert that may have been used to help move blocks up a cliff. The bizarre object has a central ramp surrounded by staircases with many holes, while researchers said a similar method may have been used in Giza.
In addition, Mediterranean archaeologists have found evidence that Giza had a busy port, which allowed goods to be shipped to the site from all over ancient Egypt and the East. Researchers also found that the goods brought in included limestone from Tora (a region in Egypt) and cedar wood from Lebanon.
Despite the differences between the three pyramids, the pyramid of Khufu [Cheops] is several times the mass of Menkaure. The southeastern ends of each pyramid are connected almost precisely to each other. Each pyramid has a mortuary temple and a valley, with a bridge connecting them. There were also smaller pyramids referred to as satellite pyramids or queen pyramids.
To the south of the pyramids lies a settlement that archaeologists sometimes refer to as the "Lost City." Live Science previously reported that this city has barracks that may have housed soldiers. Archaeologists have discovered a palace in the city that was used by high officials and pyramid workers may have lived in simpler dwellings located next to the pyramids themselves.